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对各种生物材料的超声波照射
时间:2018-1-23 23:03:58来源:未知 作者:admin1 点击:1156,1,0次
对各种生物材料的超声波照射
Name Description
Actinomyces
3 minutes of sonifying produces excellent disruption with 50% protein release and excellent enzyme activity.
Actinomycin D
Suspended in 3 minutes.
Aerobacter Aerogenes
Excellent breakage with better enzyme release than any other method. A low power setting can release sulfatase activity into the supernate with no obvious disruption of the majority of cells.
Aerobacter Suboxydans
Excellent breakage but requires higher power than aerogenes.
Algae Secendesmus
10 ml concentrated solution completely disrupts in 1 minute.
Alkaloids
Total amount and speed of extraction are greater than with standard methods. Extraction from ipecac root in 30 seconds yielded more alkaloid than Soxhlet extraction in 5 hours.
Antibioticus
Monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. Complete disruption in 5 minutes, 50% disruption in 2 minutes.
Antigen
The Sonifier system is used extensively to produce antigens and vaccines. It can increase yield or expose otherwise unobtainable sites.
Aorta
1 gram disintegrates in 2 minutes.
Aphanomyces
After blending, complete disruption in 3 minutes.
Arthobacter Tumescens
10 gm in 40 ml in 5 minutes for O coumaric reductose.
Ascaris Eggs
8 ml concentrated solution completely disrupts in 4 minutes.
Asperigillus
Complete disruption in 4 minutes.
Aurefaciens
Monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. Complete disruption in 5 minutes, 50% disruption in 2 minutes.
Azotobacter Vinelandii
15 ml buffered solution, 200 mg wet wt/ml completely disintegrates in 2 minutes.
B. Anthracis
80% disruption of anthracis in 4 minutes. Complete disruption of 10 ml of eryisipelothrix rhusipathiae in 10 minutes.
B. Cereus Veg Cells
Disruption in a few seconds.
B. Cereus Spores
Disruption of 10 mg/6 ml in 13 minutes.
B. Megaterium
Spores
Complete breakage of a concentrated 6 ml solution in 15 minutes.
B. Sphaericus
Major disruption in 1-3 minutes.
B. Stereothermophilis Spores
Complete disruption in 2 minutes.
B. Subtilis
Disruption of 5 gm wet wt, 15 ml buffer, in 5 minutes.
B. Subtilis Veg Cells
Heavy suspension clears in 1 minute.
Bacillus Stereothermophulus (Thermophillic Spore Form)
98% disruption of 70 ml of 40% suspension in 15 minutes.
Bacillus Brevis
1:15 W/V in 3 minutes.
Bacteroides Symbiosis
1-phosphorfructokinase (a soluble enzyme) has been isolated from this anaerobe by ultrasonic treatment. A 25 ml suspension was sonified for 10 minutes and centrifuged at 36,000 xg for 10 minutes.
Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae)
See Yeast.
Blastomyces Dermatitidis
95% disruption in 3 minutes.
Blood Cells
Red and white cells can be disrupted in a few seconds.
Boll Weevil Tissue
Complete homogenization in a few seconds.
Bone
Compact bone can be sonified and processed for microscopic sections in minutes. Other methods can require up to a week. Bone specimens treated in this way yielded large numbers of intact cells with little distortion. Malignant criteria are easily recognized. Tumor types studied were: osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, liposarcoma, chordoma, metastic bronchogenic squamous and benign giant. Bone can be decalcified without injury to the cells, processed for microscopic sections, and diagnosed in a short time. Other methods require extensive treatment time.
Brain Stem And Adrenal Gland
Ultrasonic treatment dispersed 10 mg samples in 10 ml fluid, which is usually difficult without substantial loss of material. The suspension was analyzed for nucleotides.
Brain Tissue
Disintegrates instantly.
Brevi Bacterium
25 ml disrupts in 20 seconds.
Brevi Bacterium Acetylicum
Approximately 3 minutes to disrupt large samples and measure TCA enzyme activity.
Brine Shrimp
Complete disintegration in 1 minute.
Brucella Abortes
Separates easily from leucocytes. At least 9 antigens extracted.
Bull Sperm
Contractile protein is easier to extract from tails after sonifying.
C. Butyricum, C. Cylinrosporum, C. Kluyveri
Vegetative cells easily disrupted.
C. Pasteurianum
3 minutes disruption for hydrogens reducing Ferredoxin with H2.
Calcium
Mouse Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were sonified for 1 minute to determine the amount of bound calcium present. Cells were labeled with calcium 45.
Candida Albicans Spores
95% disruption of 1/2 gram dry wt. in a 15 ml solution in 35 minutes.
Carbon Black
Excellent small particle suspension.
Caryophanon Latum
Glucosamine, muramic acid, alanine, glutamic acid and lysine were obtained.
Catecholamine
Can be extracted from heart muscle.
Cellumonas Biazotea
Disruption obtained with retention of malate dehydrogenase activity. Chicken spermatozoa: completely disrupts in 2 minutes.
Chlorella
Completely disrupts in 3 minutes.
Chloroplasts
Disrupt in a few seconds.
Cholesterol
Apparent permanent suspension in 1 minute in water.
Desullovibrio Vulgaris
Less than 30 seconds of ultrasonic treatment resulted in release of TCA enzymes.
Diplococcus
Completely disrupts in 5 minutes.
Dna
Breaks chains on low power instantly. Controlled degradation may be obtained.
Dyes
Excellent rapid dispersion and homogenization.
E. Coli.
2 gm wet weight in 10 ml solution completely disrupts in 40 seconds. The Sonifer Cell Disruptor has been used extensively in research on this organism.
Egg Whites
Can be reduced to a homogeneous pipettable solution in 15 seconds on low power.
Ehrlich Ascites
Disrupts in a few seconds.
Electron Microscopy
Apertures are quickly cleaned.
Emulsions
10 ml of most light mixtures become semi-permanent emulsions in about 1 minute without emulsifiers. Average particle size is usually well under 1 micron. Sterile emulsions can be prepared by ultrasonic treatment for feeding to germ-free animals.
Enterococcus
Excellent disruption.
Erwina Cartovara
Complete disruption in 1-2 minutes depending on cell concentration.
Erythrocytes
Disrupts in a few seconds.
Euglena Gracilis
Completely disrupts in a few seconds to isolate chloroplasts.
Eugoena
Complete disruption in 12 minutes, 90% disruption in 8 minutes with pigment released.
Fat Extraction
Fat can be emulsified without injuring tissue with proper power selection. Lipid layer can be stripped from spores and mycobacteria.
Fibrin
Complete suspension of 0.125 gm in 30 minutes.
Fish Gill
Complete disruption of 20 mg in 30 seconds.
Fish Tissue
Tissue homogenization for extractions and excellent particle size reduction in 8 minutes per 10 gm.
Fluorocarbons
Extended treatment time will break down particle size to well under 1 micron and gives a fine homogenate.
Fossils
Low power will clean debris from delicate fossils without injury. Micro fossils such as pollen can be separated from rocks to help identify the geological age of the strata. Removal of rock matrix.
Gamma Globulin
The Sonifer Cell Disruptor was used to solubilize protein as one of the steps in the biosynthesis of gamma globulin from rabbit spleen.
Gangliosides
Immunochemical and structure studies used ultrasonic treatment as one step.
Gastric Mucosa
Placing scrapings into a test tube and test tube into new water- filled cup horn caps permits these cells to be separated without breakage.
Graphite Molybdenum Disulfide
An excellent dispersion of this lubricant was made in a silicate binder.
Guanine
Produces colloidal suspension in 1 minute.
Gymnodinium
Solution completely disrupts in 6 minutes.
Haemophilus Pertussis
Preparation of successful immunological complexes.
Heart Muscle
1 gm disintegrates in 6 minutes.
Hela Cells
Disruption to free virus in a few seconds without injury.
Hemophilus Pertussis
An immunological compound prepared.
Herpes Virus
May be quickly released without injury.
Histoplasma Capsulatum
Ultrasonic treatment for 7 minutes completely ruptures cells prepared by formalin fixation. Good enzyme activity is obtained.
Human Serum Proteins
Ultrasonic treatment causes a reproducible change in the electrophoretic behavior of normal human serum consisting of an increase in material migrating in the x and b globulin zones with a reduction in the albumin and y globulin fractions.
Hydrocortisone
Smaller crystals were produced by ultrasonic treatment.
Hydrophilic Vegetable Gums
Disperses and solubilizes hydrophilic vegetable gums in water;makes dispersions of added particulate matter.
Intracellular Membrane
Disruption and particle size reduction obtained in 30-60 seconds.
Isoenzymes
Selectively activated with respect to time and intensity of treatment.
Kidney
1 gm disintegrates in 3 minutes.
Kidney Stones
Easily broken in seconds in vitro.
Klebsiella
Excellent disruption.
L. Arabinosis
Complete disruption to free virus in 2 minutes without injury.
Lactobacillus
0.5 gm in 15 ml completely disrupts in 11 minutes. Excellent release of acetokinase.
Lenconostoc Mesenteroides
Ultrasonic treatment for 15 minutes using high power for disruption.
Leukocyte Lysozyme Activity In Myelocytic Leukemia
The cell suspension was ultrasonically treated and samples assayed for lysozyme activity. The lysozyme concentration of the leukocytes ug/106 cells was determined.
Linoleic Acid
Made suspension in water in 30 seconds.
Liver Tissue
1 gm homogenizes in less than 1 minute.
Lung Tissue
1 gm homogenizes in 2 minutes.
Lymphacytis
Complete disruption in 15 seconds.
Lymphocyte Nuclei
Complete disruption in 6 minutes.
Lymph Gland
Cirect injection lymphography with a modified radiopaque emulsion was obtained by ultrasonic treatment in a functional procedure producing lymphatic structure detail.
Lysossomes
Released enzymes quickly.
Malaria Prolozoa
Fast, excellent disruption.
Maple Bark Spores
Complete disruption in 14 minutes.
Measles
Disruption of virus antigen clumps present in infected cells on low power. Ultrasonic treatment increased antigen titer 4-8 fold.
Methanobacillus Omelianskii
1 gm cells wet wt/ml completely disintegrates in 2 minutes for assaying methane.
Microbacterium Lacticum
Ultrasonic treatment used for malate dehydrogenase extraction.
Micrococci
A 13 ml solution completely disrupts in 15 minutes.
Micrococcus Lactiliticus
75 ml of a 20% suspension was disintegrated in 15 minutes and a good yield of the enzyme Xanthine dehydrogenase extracted.
Mineral Rock
Excellent for cleaning surfaces between polishing stages.
Mitochondria
Separate from cells without injury. Mitochondria themselves can be broken with longer ultrasonic treatment. Inner membrane subunits also isolated.
Muscle Tissue
1 gm homogenized in 4 minutes; heart muscle in 6 minutes.
Mycobacteria
A 20 ml growing media completely disrupts in 14 minutes. Clumps break quickly. An immunological compound prepared.
Mycoplasma Antibody
A suspension of Campo-W cells treated for 5 minutes gave 12 lines with the sera in a gel diffusion test. The extract was estimated to contain 12.75 mg protein per ml by Blaret reaction.
Myeloma Tumor Cells
Complete disruption in 10 minutes, 30% disruption in 2 minutes.
Myleran
Made colloidal suspension and dissolved in approximately 1 minute.
N. Crassa
Nuclease was isolated and purified from conidial extracts after 5 minutes treatment.
Naegleri Gruberi
This free-living soil amoeba was treated ultrasonically to release subcellular infectious material.
Neurospora
40 ml, 4 minutes, produced more protein than freeze thawing for study of enzymatic synthesis of cystathionine.
Nocardia Ostenodes
Breaks clumps and disintegrates in less than 10 minutes.
Nucleoprotein
Extracted from tissue. May be degraded selectively.
Oil And Water Emulsions
Permanent, stable emulsions in a few seconds. Particle size reduced to less than micron (each case slightly different). Oil in water/water in oil phases can be obtained in same vessel.
Oyster Shell
Small, clean hole can be drilled with microtip in 3 minutes. No cracking is produced.
Paracolon
Excellent disruption.
Parasites
Separated from red blood cells in a few seconds.
Pasteurella Pestis
Complete disruption in 30 minutes using high power.
Penicillium
Complete disruption in 3 minutes.
Pesticides
Ultrasonic treatment resulted in a 16-fold improvement in the potency of the antigen used with Microcrystalline Cellulose as a thin-layer absorbent for chromatographic separation.
Phosphatidate Phosphohydrolase
The most potent inhibitors for this enzyme were obtained by making five dispersions with the Sonifier system.
Phospholipid Micelles
Produced stable preparations for an indefinite period.
Plant Cells
30% packed plant cells (W/V) and distilled water (depending on type) can be completely disrupted in 1-15 minutes.
Plant Tissue
1 gm dried tissue suspended in alcohol disintegrates in about 5 minutes.
Platelets
Complete disruption according to size from 20 seconds to 4 minutes.
Pneumococci
Preserved in formalin for several years; completely disrupts in 6 minutes.
Polio Virus
Excellent disruption of this most difficult virus.
Powders
Broken down to a small, relatively uniform particle size.
PPLO
Complete disruption in 2 minutes.
Propionobacteria
Releases sulfhydro groups intact; 70 ml of 20% suspension processed for 10 minutes.
Propionibacterium Shermanii
2 minutes for extraction of citrate synthose.
Proteus
Excellent disruption.
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Rapid, complete disintegration.
Pseudomonas Fluorescens
2 gm wet wt in 10 ml completely disrupts in 1 minute.
Pulmonary Cytodiagnosis
The mucous in sputum can be evenly dispersed, giving a quick representative sample of cells for cytologic examination. Cells are liberated from the mucous of sputum that had been immersed in 50% alcohol or a fixative.
Ragweed Pollen
15 ml dispersion completely disintegrates in 11 minutes.
Rat Bone
1/2 gm disintegrates in 4 minutes.
Rat Liver
Complete disruption in 3 minutes.
Rat Liver Mitochondria
Ultrasonic treatment has been used extensively for the varied research performed on this material. Disruption occurs in seconds.
Rat Skin
1 gm completely disintegrates in 4 minutes.
Red And White Blood Cells
Ultrasonic treatment breaks particle size to 100 Angstroms. Complete disruption in 1 minute. 25 gms/100 ml, saline or plasma, sample treated 15 seconds, 35% disruption. Adenosine triphosphate was shown to be membrane-bound by this method.
Reovirus
Dissociates cell-bound and aggregated virus. Maximum titer with 4 ml of virus was achieved in 2 minutes.
Retinal Outer Segments
Ultrasonic treatment breaks particles down to almost molecular size.
Rhodopseudomonis Palustris
Complete disruption in 4 minutes.
Rhodospirillum Rubrum
Excellent disruption in a few seconds.
Rimosus
Monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. Complete disruption in 5 minutes, 50% disruption in 2 minutes.
RNA
Rapid and thorough re-suspension of 9 TCA pellets during extractions.
Rocks
Excellent for disaggregation of sedimentary rock and for cleaning material rock surfaces between polishing stages.
S. Faecalis
Excellent disruption in 1 minute.
S. Fragilis
5 minutes yielded excellent release of galactokinase, more than any other method. Subcellular particles may be extracted or disrupted.
Saliva Glands
Complete disruption.
Salmonella
Various culture media or phosphate buffered saline disintegrated between 40 and 50% in 10-20 minutes. Sonifying was one step in an improved assay for enzyme thiogalactosize transacetylase.
Salmonella Typhimurium And Enteritidis
Bacteria were suspended in 1/300 volume of original culture, sonified for 4 minutes and centrifuged for 20 minutes at 20,000 g. Extracts were found to catalyze the synthesis of cytidine diphosphate 3, 6-dideozyhexoses.
Scholasticism Mansion
Complete disruption.
Sedimentary Rock
Completely disperses flocs with the release of all bound silt and clay particles.
Sediments
Ultrasonic treatment disperses fine material permitting quick, neat separation of sand from silt and clay fractions.
Serial Number Restoration
Used in crime laboratories to restore obliterated serial numbers.
Serratia Marcescens
Complete breakdown of a concentrated solution in 1 minute.
Serum
Quickly homogenized.
Serum Cholinesterase
Activated by ultrasonic treatment. Different cholinesterase isoenzymes may be activated and inactivated selectively.
Shale
Excellent disaggregation of all fine-grained sedimentary rocks.
Shellfish
By drilling a clean hole with the microtip, various fluids or samples may be withdrawn or injected from living shellfish without destroying the animals.
Shigella
Quick disruption.
Skin
1 gm disintegrates in about 4 minutes. Epidermal homogenates that respire and utilize substrate can be extracted.
Soil
Separates solid particles without use of oxidants, acids or peptizing agents and yields stable suspensions.
Sperm (Human)
Tails are broken instantly. Heads are broken in 20 minutes.
Sputum
Cancer cells are more easily detected after ultrasonic treatment due to even dispersion of cells and sputum, and complete liberation of the cells from sputum.
Staphylococcus
A concentrated solution disrupts 98% in 10 minutes. With 1 gm cells wet wt, to 2 gm water, 54.5 mg/ml of protein was released.
Starch
Obtained by extracting from green plant leaf homogenate.
Streptococcus, Group A
A 20% suspension in a 15 ml solution completely disrupts in 15 minutes.
Streptomyces
Monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. Complete disruption in 5 minutes, 50% disruption in 2 minutes.
Subcellular Particles
May be separated or broken depending on power selection and length of time.
Sulfanilamide
Excellent dispersion in less than 1 minute. Continued ultrasonic treatment will produce complete disruption.
Sulfapyridine
Excellent dispersion in less than 1 minute. Continued ultrasonic treatment will produce complete disruption.
Synovial Fluid
Ultrasonic treatment is an excellent means of reducing fluid viscosity. It is simpler and faster than using hyaluronidase.
T. Pyriformi
Excellent disruption, 8 enzymes released.
Tablets
Complete disruption in 2-40 seconds, depending on type.
Tea
Excellent extraction.
Tetrahymena
Disrupts in a few seconds. Enzymes which have been monitored include: succinate, lactate, B-hydroxy butyrate, glutamate and DPNH oxidases, DPNH-cytochromeC, reductase and ribonuclease. Activity of DPNH oxidase was twice that of the best previous experiments.
Themoactinomyces
Disruption of hyphae. Homogenization of protein complex without denaturation.
Thermophile Negative
Good disruption within 2 minutes.
Thermophilic Bacillus
Isocitrate lyase was extracted from a spore-forming bacillus similar to Stearothermophilus. A washed cell paste suspended in a phosphate buffer was sonified 1-2 minutes and the supernatent was used for enzyme experiments without further treatment. Extracts could be frozen and stored without loss of activity.
Thiouric Acid
Dissolved in a few seconds.
Thymus Cells
Complete disruption in 15 seconds.
Tissue Culture Cells
Complete disruption in a few seconds. To avoid damage to free organelles and to obtain intact lysosomes, use low power at short exposure.
Toxin And Antitoxin
One example of many: Toxin preparations of whole cell lysate (WCL) of the Inaba serotype strain 569E of the classic biotype of cholera vibrio were grown on 3% Bacto peptane agar and harvested in distilled water at 18 hours. The unwashed suspensions were solubilized ultrasonically, clarified by centrifugation and the supernate freeze-dried for the titration of cholare toxin in the rabbit ileal loop.
Toxoplasma Gondii
Can be separated form white blood cells without injury.
Transplantation Antigens
Were extracted from spleen, thymus and lymph nodes.
Trichomonas Foetus
Complete disruption in a few seconds.
Triolein
Complete stable emulsion in 2 minutes.
Trypanosomes
Concentrated 10 ml solution completely disrupts in 4 minutes.
Uterus Muscle
A 1/5 gm, 3 cc solution completely disrupts in 3 minutes for coenzyme Q determination.
Vaccines
Numerous advantages, such as more antigenic material released than usual, and the production of vaccines not obtainable by classified methods.
Various Bacilli
Complete disruption in 3 minutes.
Vibrio Comma
Excellent disruption.
Vibrio Extraction
Excellent for experimental vaccines. Evidence of breakage of virus/antibody bonds. Virus can be extracted without damage at low power, or broken at high power.
Vitamin E
30 seconds of ultrasonic treatment put material in solution with a resultant permanent suspension.
W138 Virus
Cell-free V-2 virus obtained in 30 seconds using 6 ml of Veronal buffer with W138 cells containing V-2 virus.
Yeast
Complete disruption in 3-10 minutes. Complete disruption of 9 grams pressed yeast in 18 ml buffer in 8 minutes. Protein release,52 mg/ml from an aged sample.
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